Campaign buttons are used in an election as political advertising for (or against) a candidate or political party, or to proclaim the issues that are part of the political platform. Political buttons, date as far back as President George Washington. They have taken many forms as the technology to create an image and mass production has allowed. In the late 18th and first half of the 19th century they were real buttons sewn onto coats, whereas the modern forms typically have pins on the back and are therefore also calledpinback buttons.
The first photographic image on pins dates to 1860. Abraham Lincoln and his various opponents used the tintype or ferrotype photo process.
The first mass production of metal buttons dates to the 1896 William McKinley campaign for president with “celluloid” buttons with one side of a metal disk covered with paper (printed with the message) and protected by a layer of clear plastic.
Since 1916, buttons have also been produced by lithographing the image directly onto the metal disk.  Thousands of buttons are produced and distributed to the public. A celluloid-type button is fastened to a garment using a pin on the back side of the button (in recently-produced buttons, the pin generally fits into a safety-pin-style catch). A lithographed button may fasten with a pinback or with a metal tab which folds over a lapel or pocket.
One of the most famous uses of campaign buttons occurred during the 1940 U.S. presidential election, when Wendell Willkie‘s campaign produced millions of lithographed slogan buttons in rapid response to news items about President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Campaign buttons bear some similarity to bumper stickers, which are also used for political and other promotional messages. As a novelty item, campaign buttons are part of the hobby of collecting.
Recently, increasing advertising expenses and legal limits on expenditures have led many U.S. campaigns to abandon buttons in favor of disposable lapel stickers, which are much less expensive.
Another recent trend is the use of graphical campaign buttons, or “web buttons“, that internet users can place on their personal websites. Graphical campaign buttons are useful because they can be widely distributed for little cost.
However, wider availability of machines for producing celluloid-type buttons (as well as inkjet and laser printers and designsoftware) now permit even small campaigns to produce or acquire buttons relatively inexpensively, even in small quantities.
In heraldry, a badge is an emblem or personal device used to indicate allegiance to or property of an individual or family.
Physical badges were common in the Middle Ages particularly in England. They would be made of base metal and worn on the clothing of the followers of the person in question. This might be in battle or in other contexts where allegiance was displayed. The badge would also be embroidered or appliqued on standards, horse trappings, livery uniforms, and other belongings.
Military badges of the United States are awards authorized by the United States armed forces that signify rating, qualification, or accomplishment in several career fields, and also serve as identification devices for personnel occupying certain assignments. Personal recognition is granted to service members by a number of awards and decorations. Together with military decorations, such badges are authorized for wear on military uniforms.
Each of the five military services maintains a separate series of badges that may be awarded to service members. Various regulations exist on how badges are displayed, how many may be worn at one time, and whether or not such badges may be worn on the uniform of more than one branch of service.
There are six general categories of United States military badges:
In addition to those badges currently authorized, there are a number of obsolete badges that have been phased out of the U.S. armed forces and no longer appear on U.S. award precedence charts.
A nursing pin is a type of badge, usually made of metal such as gold or silver, which is worn by nurses to identify the nursing school from which they graduated. They are traditionally presented to the newly–graduated nurses by the faculty at a pinning ceremony as a symbolic welcome into the profession. Most pins have a symbolic meaning, often representing the history of the nursing program for that school of nursing.
The ancestor of the nursing pin is the Maltese cross. Some significant historical contributors to the foundation of hospital standards involved in using the Maltese cross were the Knights Hospitaller and Order of Saint Lazarus, pioneers of communicable disease care, such as leprosy, syphilis, and other chronic skin diseases during their period, and established one of a few hospitals in the territories of their reign. As the Renaissanceperiod progressed, the use of the symbol has evolved into family coat of arms, then given to those who were providers of exclusive services. Such pins were then awarded to nurses who were needed by society during periods of spread of uncontrolled illnesses during the early period, and to recognize them as nurses who are educated, trained and experienced in the said field.
Nurse’s pins today
Modern designs of nurse’s pins have evolved through time. The Maltese cross, in some nursing educational institutions, has not been incorporated in their pins, instead, their own seal or logo such us that of their nursing school, nursing organization of university affiliated with. The pin is still worn as part of the nurse’s uniforms today, in such cases, before or even after they graduate from their respective nursing schools, and work for medical institutions, such as hospitals and health and wellness centers.
A personal device is closely related to the picture-text combinations called emblems found in emblem books. Popular from late medieval times, the personal device typically consisted of a visual image and a short text or “motto”, which when read in combination were intended to convey a sense of the aspirations or character of the bearer.
Derived from heraldry, where the coat of arms would often include a motto, the device spread far beyond the aristocracy during the Renaissance as part of the craze for wittily enigmatic constructions in which combinations of pictures and texts were intended to be read together to generate a meaning that could not be derived from either part alone. The device, to all intents and purposes identical to the Italian impresa, differs from the emblem in two principal ways. Structurally, the device normally consists of two parts while most emblems have three or more. As well, the device was highly personal, intimately attached to a single individual, while the emblem was constructed to convey a general moral lesson that any reader might apply in his or her own life.
Particularly well-known examples of devices — so well known that the image could be understood as representing the bearer even without the motto — include the porcupine ofLouis XII with its motto “Eminus et cominus” or “De pres et de loin” (left, over a doorway at Blois) and the crowned salamander among flames of François Ier with the motto “Nutrisco et extinguo” (right, at Chambord). These and many more were collected by Claude Paradin and published in his Devises héroïques of 1551 and 1557, which gives the motto of Louis XII as “Ultos avos Troiae”.